Preface

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PREFACE

While several studies have been made in the field of New Brunswick education, no comprehensive or detailed history of the educational development of the province, based upon extensive archival research, has been published, nor so far as I am aware, has such a history been written. Certainly no attempt has been made to set developments in New Brunswick education against the social political, and economic background of the province, or to relate them to the wider field of educational movements in Britain, Europe, the United States, and other parts of British North America. For this reason the present work, in which such an attempt has been made, may be of some interest to the student of the history of ideas and institutions. While possibly of primary concern to the people of New Brunswick, it will, I hope, make some contribution to the cultural history of Canada.
Research into the manuscript, newspaper, book, and pamphlet collections contained in many of the archives and libraries of eastern Canada has enabled me to give a more comprehensive account of the flow of educational ideas and intellectual changes than would have been possible if the material used had been confined to the obvious printed sources. The subject has not been conceived as a succession of anecdotes or biographies, but rather as an aspect of a developing society treated in its relation to a general social and cultural context. Consequently no attempt has been made to enlarge upon the lives and personalities of educational officials, except in the cases of Marshall d'Avray and Theodore Rand who were responsible for inaugurating changes and determining policy in the two most crucial periods in the history of the province. The influence of the New England States, and the general significance of regionalism have been suggested whenever possible. I am well aware of many defects and deficiencies, for some of which I plead exigencies of time and space. The lack of an index is a serious omission, but the detailed table of contents will, I trust provide a useful substitute.
I acknowledge gratefully the financial assistance of a fellowship at the University of New Brunswick which has made possible the writing of this master s essay, and I express my warmest appreciation to the Campbellton School board for their generosity in granting me two years leave of absence from my teaching position. I am grateful to the staff of the Public Archives of Canada, particularly to Miss Norah Storey; to Miss Estelle Vaughan and the other members of the staff of the Saint John Free Public Library; to Dr. J. Clarence Webster, C. M. G., and to Miss Margaret Evans of the New Brunswick Museum for the courtesy with which they facilitated my research work. To Mrs. M. J. Thompson, Librarian at the University of New Brunswick, and to the entire library staff of the University, I am deeply indebted for the more than ordinary facilities which they placed at my disposal. Miss Louise Manny of Newcastle not only gave me encouragement but she and Dr. Lilian Maxwell generously offered the use of valuable material in their possession. Dr. A. S. MacFarlane,
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until recently the Chief Superintendent of Education and Dr. Fletcher Peacock, Director of Educational Services and Chief Superintendent of Education of New Brunswick, co-operated in every way in my search for material at the Education Office. The Honorable J. B. McNair, Premier of the province, and Mr. Justice Bacon Dickson, until recently the Deputy Attorney General, readily placed at the disposal of the Department of History of the University archival material In the vault of the Executive Council. Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin Company of Boston, have kindly given me permission to quote from Professor D. G. Creighton's brilliant interpretation of Canadian history, “Dominion of the North” . To these, and to those others who assisted me in various ways, I express my sincere thanks.
My greatest debt is to Dr. A. G. Bailey, head of the Department of History of the University of New Brunswick. But for his faith this book would not have been begun, and without his encouragement and assistance it could never have been completed. In that sense it belongs to him as well as to me. I must, however, bear final responsibility for any faults which may be found in the work. I am grateful also to Miss Frances Firth, of the Department of History, for her assistance in reading the proofs.
KATHERINE F. C. MacNAUGHTON.
Campbellton, N. B.
1945.