Table of Contents

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • Foreword.............. p. i
  • Introduction.......... p. iii
  • Preface............... p. v
CHAPTER 1
The British Background
  • The logical beginning, p. 1;
  • The rise of the Whig Oligarchy, p. 1;
  • The aristocratic view of society and government, p. 1;
  • Domestic policies of the Oligarchy, p. 2;
  • Mercantile and colonial policies, p. 3;
  • When state and church are allied p. 4;
  • The Church of England a privileged body, p. 4;
  • Its conception of schools as missionary agencies, p. 5;
  • The slow response in education to the changing industrial life, p. 5;
  • Education and the English "national" genius, p. 5;
  • The aristocratic view of education, p. 5;
  • Education as "the handmaid of religion", p. 6;
  • The real purpose of philanthropic educational programmes, p. 7;
  • A brief description of the English "system"of education, p. 7;
  • The call of Locke and Montaigne for better pedagogical methods ignored, p. 10;
  • Education not "child" centred, p. 10;
  • Rousseau's protest, p. 10;
  • Reasons why Emile and the plans of liberal French thinkers were not heeded, p. 10;
  • The English reluctance to abandon eighteenth-century philosophies of education, p. 11;
  • The loyalists of New Brunswick British, but also American, p. 11.;
CHAPTER 2
The American Background
  • Dual tendencies in American education, p. 12;
  • The colonial heritage of class distinctions, p. 12;
  • The Massachusetts theocracy, p. 13;
  • Old world tradition and practice in colonial education, p. 13;
  • The harmony with tradition even in Massachusetts, p. 14;
  • Early Colonial schooling, p. 15;
  • Influences and circumstances which fostered a new spirit, p. 16;
  • Intellectual and educational aspects of this spirit, p. 18;
  • The new tradition of public education in Massachusetts, p. 19;
  • Tributes to the New England spirit of local responsibility, p. 19;
  • New trends in colonial secondary education, p. 19;
  • The struggle in America between democracy and privilege, p. 20;
  • The American revolution as a social upheaval, p. 20;
  • The Tory philosophy, p. 21;
  • The choice before the Loyalists, p. 22;
  • Able men but reactionaries, p. 23;
  • The Loyalist-Tory view of society, government, and education, p. 23;
  • Their hatred of anything American, p. 24;
  • The significance of their new environment, p. 25;
CHAPTER 3
The Nova Scotian Background
  • The Loyalists are greeted by a "wilderness", p. 26;
  • Why things were as they
    were, p. 27;
  • Acadia, scene of alternate neglect and unwelcome attention, p. 27;
  • Education during the French occupancy, p. 29;
  • The beginnings of English settlement, p. 29;
  • The early English settlements north of the Bay of Fundy, p. 30;
  • Life in these pre-Loyalist settlements, p. 31;
  • Slight provision for education, p. 31;
  • The "fourteenth" colony and the American Revolution, p. 32;
  • Attitude of the Loyalists to the "old inhabitants", p. 33;
  • Nova Scotia—isolated and disunited, p. 33;
  • A clear field for Loyalist endeavor, p. 33;
  • But the price is high, p.33;
  • The pull between geography and sentiment, p. 34;
  • A challenge seen and accepted, p. 34;
CHAPTER 4
The Loyalist Pattern
  • Reactionary years in New Brunswick, p. 35;
  • And in Britain, p. 35;
  • The indifference of English Toryism toward advances in education in France and Prussia, p. 35;
  • The beginnings in Prussia of state-supported education, p. 35;
  • Prussian enthusiasm for Pestalozzi, p. 36;
  • Whitbread and Brougham, voices crying in the wilderness, p. 36;
  • Britain's colonial policies of the period, p. 37;
  • Factors in the formation of New Brunswick as a separate province, p. 37;
  • The New Republic and New Brunswick—a contrast in beginnings, p. 37;
  • The narrow political views of the Governor and Council, p. 38;
  • A fettered Assembly, p. 39;
  • Hardy and Glenie, exponents of liberal principles, p. 40;
  • Political clashes retard school legislation, p. 40;
  • Evidences of class distinctions, p. 40;
  • The significance of tradition and class consciousness for the incipient school system, p. 41;
  • Parish schools for the unprivileged, p. 42;
  • Grammar schools f or the upper ranks, p. 42;
  • A wide field for private endeavor, p. 43;
  • Schools of the S.P.G., p. 44;
  • Anglican activity and influence in the educational field, p. 45;
  • Dissenters and education, p. 46;
  • The service rendered elementary education in New Brunswick by the S.P.G., p. 46;
  • Teachers and teaching conditions in the schools of the S.P.G., p. 46;
  • The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England and its endeavors to educate the Indians, p. 47;
  • Obstacles to the educational aims of the society, p. 48;
  • Diversion of the Society's bounty, p. 49;
  • Sir Howard Douglas criticizes the school at Sussex Vale, p. 49;
  • The failure of the Society's scheme, p. 49;
  • The early years of the Fredericton Academy, p. 50;
  • It becomes the College of New Brunswick, p. 52;
  • The Fredericton Collegiate School, p. 52;
  • Snobbery in the school, p. 53;
  • Transportation, trade, and industry in New Brunswick at the turn of the century, p. 53;
  • Exodus from the province, p. 55;
  • Conditions not such as to inspire "adventures in intelligence", p. 55;
  • The Parish School Act of 1802, p. 56;
  • The Act of 1805 for "encouraging and extending literature", p. 58;
  • The "moving" school in New Brunswick, p. 59;
  • The administration between 1805 and 1816, p. 59;
  • Trade with the United States during this period, p. 60;
  • A boom in trade with Britain, p. 61;
  • Increased attention to education in 1816, p. 62;
  • The Grammar School at St. Andrews, p. 62;
  • The Grammar School Act of 1816, p. 62;
  • The imitative element in New Brunswick school legislation, p. 63;
  • The Parish School Act of 1816, p. 63;
  • The premature introduction of the assessment principle, p. 64;
  • Popular indifference to education, p. 64;
  • Increase in the number of illiterates, p. 65;
  • The story of Madras
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    schools in New Brunswick, p. 65;
  • The school legislation of 1823, p. 70;
  • The Grammar School Act of 1829, p. 70;
  • The assault on the privileges of the Church of England, p. 71;
  • The Act of 1833 with especial reference to female teachers, p. 71;
  • Reform in educational policy long overdue, p. 72;
  • New forces make a new pattern, p. 72;
  • Repercussions from the lumber trade, especially on agriculture, p. 72;
  • On society and habits, p. 73;
  • On international relations, p. 74;
  • Immigration and the problems it created, p. 74;
  • The Acadians of the early nineteenth century, p. 75;
  • Frontier society and social considerations, p. 75;
  • The exploiter abroad in the land, p. 75;
  • Obstacles in the way of an energetic educational policy, p. 76;
  • Everywhere political change in the air, p. 77;
  • "A Manchester Turn-Out" berates Tory rule and Tory institutions, p. 77;
  • Time and circumstances alter the Loyalist pattern of society, p. 78.;
CHAPTER 5
Provincial Society in Transition
  • The persistence of certain frontier characteristics, p. 79;
  • A variety of misfortunes, p. 79;
  • Greater attention to agriculture urged by Governor Harvey, p. 79;
  • By Governor Colebrooke, p. 79;
  • By Rev. W. T. Wishart, p. 80;
  • The New Brunswick Courier suggests the introduction of the science of agriculture into the schools, p. 80;
  • J. F. W. Johnston's report on the agricultural capabilities of the province, p. 80;
  • The vexing question of the Maine boundary, p. 80;
  • The end of the old colonial system, p. 81;
  • Varied reactions to the abandonment of the lumber preference, p. 81;
  • Responsible Government—stirring question, p. 82;
  • Commercial optimism, p. 82;
  • The hampering effects of limitations in capital and industry, p. 83;
  • Provincial horizons widen, p. 83;
  • But in education indifference is general, p. 84;
  • Ferment the motif of the period (1833-1854), p. 84;
  • The empirical strain in the temper of the province, p. 85;
  • Comments on this trait by A. G. Bailey, p. 85;
  • By Hannay, p. 85;
  • By Chester Martin, p. 85;
  • By William Smith, p. 85;
  • Political questions overshadow educational problems p. 85;
  • An inefficient way of voting money, p. 86;
  • S. L. Tilley scores the mode of making appropriations, p. 86;
  • Lack of clear policy retards reform, p. 87;
  • The New Brunswick temperament suspicious of the unconstitutional and the hasty, p. 87;
CHAPTER 6
Educational Developments (1833-1847)
  • Little administrative machinery in education in 1833, p. 89;
  • The Act of 1837 in reference to female teachers, p. 89;
  • The creation of County Boards of Education by the Act of 1837, p. 90;
  • Difficulty in obtaining suitably loyal school texts, p. 90;
  • Various reports on the shocking textbook situation, p. 91;
  • Sir William Colebrooke's early efforts to establish a training school, p. 92;
  • A variety of reports on education before the Assembly of 1842, p. 95;
  • All publicly Supported schools to be inspected, p. 97;
  • The report of the Inspectors presented, in 1845, p. 97;
  • £ 12000 a year to the Parish Schools, p. 97;
  • But the returns not satisfactory, p. 97;
  • The appalling state of school buildings, p. 97;
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  • Ignorance and incompetence of many teachers. p. 98;
  • The textbook situation, p. 99;
  • Reasons for the poor state of the Parish Schools, p. 99;
  • Suggested remedies, p. 99;
  • The report on the Fredericton Infant School, p. 99;
  • On the Madras Schools, p. 100;
  • On Sackville Academy, p. 100;
  • On the Baptist Seminary, p. 100;
  • The Baptists fight to obtain a grant for the Seminary, p. 100;
  • Provincial subsidies to denominational schools, p. 101;
  • An unfavorable report on the Grammar Schools, p. 101;
  • The depressed state of education an indication of cultural poverty, p. 102;
  • James Robb of King's College, p. 102;
  • Intellectual life on the Miramichi in the heyday of the lumber industry, p. 103;
  • Why the Mechanics, Institute developed, p. 104;
  • The history of this institution in Britain, p. 104;
  • In New Brunswick, p. 104;
  • Mrs. Beavan describes life in rural New Brunswick a century ago, p. 106;
  • A little leaven in the lump, p. 107;
  • Reform of the Grammar Schools comes first, p. 107;
  • The character of the legislature of 1847, p. 109;
  • Provision at last for a Training School, p. 109;
  • Teacher training before the time of Pestalozzi, p. 110;
  • Advances in Prussia in popular education, teacher training, and central supervision, p. 110;
  • Post-Revolutionary developments in education in France, p. 110;
  • Two distinctive features of the French and Prussian systems, p. 111;
  • Progress in England toward state control and teacher-training hindered by strongly entrenched religious and educational societies, p. 111;
  • But the Imperial authorities approve the idea of a training school for New Brunswick, p. 112;
  • Progress in New England under Mann and Barnard toward free education and normal schools, p. 113;
  • Distinctive features of American education in 1850, p. 114;
  • Similarities between early education in Upper Canada and New Brunswick, p. 114;
  • Achievements under Egerton Ryerson, p. 115;
  • A comparison between the educational developments of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, p. 115;
  • Much in New Brunswick's system of education is eclectic, p. 117;
  • Provisions of the Act of 1847 with respect to a Board of Education, a Training School, and the licensing and classification of teachers, p. 117;
  • The "National" school texts, Ireland's gift to New Brunswick education, p. 119;
CHAPTER 7
Plans, Personalities, and Policies
  • Negotiations with Marshall d'Avray, p. 121;
  • A contrast in expenditure, p. 121;
  • d'Avray's amazing father, p. 122;
  • His youth, p. 122;
  • His connection with education in the Mauritius, p. 122;
  • The circumstances which brought him to New Brunswick, p. 122;
  • The significance of his views on education, p. 123;
  • His first lecture on the subject, p. 123;
  • His scheme for "fostering superior talent", p. 125;
  • His most comprehensive lecture on education, p. 126;
  • His call for a system which would pay practical, social, and civic dividends, p. 127;
  • His proposals for the formation of an Agricultural School and Model Farm, p. 127;
  • His praise of the Fredericton Collegiate School, p. 128;
  • His advice to Parish teachers, p. 128;
  • His practical suggestions ignored, p. 128;
  • His attitude toward classical education, p. 128;
  • The quarrel between d'Avray and John Gregory, p. 129;
  • Gregory accuses d'Avray of holding illiberal views in education, p. 130;
  • Various aspects of the controversy, p. 131;
  • d'Avray, in 1854, advocates a
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    restricted course for the Parish Schools, p. 131;
  • The d'Avray-Gregory feud intertwined with the quarrel between Gregory and George Roberts, p. 133;
  • The story of the latter quarrel, p. 133;
  • A re-examination of d'Avray's views, p.134;
  • Many of his ideas ignored, p. 134;
  • The significance of certain regulations in the Act of 1852 relating to the curriculum of Parish Schools, p. 134;
  • Difficulties surrounding the operation of the first Normal School, p. 135;
  • The first Model School—matter of trial and error, p. 137;
  • Female teachers untrained at first, p.137;
  • The question of subsidiary training schools, p. 138;
  • d'Avray urges a number of improvements, p. 138;
  • On the destruction of the Normal School he continues as a professor at King's College, p. 139;
  • The Normal School at Saint John, and its head, Edmund Hillyer Duval, p. 139;
  • Martha Hamm Lewis makes history by enrolling at the Normal School, p. 140;
  • The dual function of the Normal School, p. 141;
  • A growing issue—to assess or not to assess, p. 143;
  • An unwilling legislature, p. 144;
  • The debate on the School Bill of 1852, p. 144;
  • Provisions of the Bill relating to Inspectors and a Chief Superintendent of Education, p. 148;
  • Assessment for schools again made permissive, p. 148;
  • Other provisions of the Bill of 1852, p. 149;
  • Serious omissions in the Bill, p. 149;
  • James Porter, the first Chief Superintendent of Education, p. 150;
  • d'Avray succeeds him, p. 150;
  • Interesting light from the official reports on the state of education, p. 150;
  • The Commission of 1854 on King's College, p. 152;
  • Important events and great expectations, p. 153;
CHAPTER 8
The Achievement of a Free School System
(A) Conflict in Politics and Compromise in Education.
  • Effective school legislation takes second place, p. 155;
  • The prohibitory liquor law of 1855 makes the political pot boil, p. 155;
  • The New Brunswick Courier emphasizes the social aspects of the political controversy, p. 156;
  • Criticism of the Tory immigration policy, p. 158;
  • The administration is blamed for the "deplorable backward condition of New Brunswick", p. 159;
  • The provincial economy suffers from changes beyond the provincial control, p. 159;
  • A Liberal administration, p. 160;
  • But the times are unpropitious for sweeping educational reforms, p. 160;
  • School officials urge the adoption of the assessment principle, p. 160;
  • d'Avray on the vocational and civic importance of education, p. 161;
  • Robb's proposed history of New Brunswick, p. 162;
  • Officials continue to call for reforms, p. 162;
  • A plague of teachers, petitions, p. 163;
  • Special grants to "superior" schools, p. 163;
  • A new problem—the question of religious instruction in schools, p. 164;
  • Clauses of the Act of 1858 relating to the Chief Superintendent and Inspectors, p. 165;
  • The question of local responsibility, p. 165;
  • Civic backwardness in New Brunswick, p. 166;
  • The Act of 1858 on local school management, p. 167;
  • Regulations dealing with the establishment of Superior Schools, p. 168;
  • With school libraries, p.168;
  • Inadequate provision for assessment, p. 168;
  • Provisions for religious and moral teaching, p. 169;
  • Other provisions of the Act of 1858, p. 169;
(B) Interim 1858-1871
  • The Act of 1858 disappoints many people, p. 170;
  • The political and economic developments of the sixties retard educational
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    reform, p. 171;
  • This period the most "written up" period of New Brunswick history, p. 172;
  • d'Avray retired as Chief Superintendent, p. 172;
  • The "spoils" system, p. 173;
  • The views of Henry Fisher, a short-lived Chief Superintendent, p. 173;
  • Fisher succeeded by John Bennet, p. 173;
  • William Mills succeeds Duval as training master, p. 174;
  • The unsatisfactory state of the Normal School premises in Saint John, p. 174;
  • William Crocket's Training School at Chatham, p. 174;
  • A single Normal School re-established at Fredericton, p. 175;
  • Information from the official reports on the Training School and the status of teachers, p. 175;
  • Two classes of untrained teachers, p. 175;
  • Moral and professional misdemeanors on the part of teachers, p. 176;
  • Governor Gordon takes a gloomy view of the economy and society of pre-confederation New Brunswick, p. 177;
  • And of her politicians, p. 178;
  • The education of the time harmonizes with its background, p. 179;
  • Some improvement in the Grammar Schools, p. 179;
  • Competitive Examinations, p. 180;
  • Teachers, Institutes, p. 181;
  • Supt. Bennet advocates a pension fund for teachers, p. 181;
  • Improvements in equipment and texts, p. 182;
  • Inspector Morrison on the subject of French texts and French teachers, p. 182;
  • The evils of a multiplicity of small school districts, p. 183;
  • Supt. Bennet on the importance of educating girls, p. 184;
  • Progress retarded by public indifference, p. 184;
  • The Chief Superintendent and the Inspectors urge the adoption of a compulsory attendance law, p. 184;
  • George Parkin speaks out on the same subject, p. 185;
  • The times are ripe for change, p. 186;
(C) The Act of 1871.
  • The Government serves notice of impending action, p. 187;
  • The Saint John Telegraph is agreeably surprised, p. 188;
  • The Hatheway-King coalition, p. 188;
  • The question of the personnel of a Board of Education, p. 189;
  • Local control in education, p. 190;
  • Napier ridicules the Fourth Book of Lessons, p. 190;
  • The Freeman declares the school system has been deliberately maligned, p. 191;
  • The Telegraph hints at lively scenes in the Assembly, p. 191;
  • Petitions for and against separate Schools, p. 191;
  • The position of sectarianism in the educational systems of other countries p. 192;
  • D'Arcy McGee on the separate school question in 1863, p. 193;
  • The New Brunswick press campaigns vigorously for and against non-sectarian schools, p. 194;
  • The vote in the Legislature on the School Bill, p. 195;
  • Lt.-Governor Wilmot becomes the target of The Freeman's scorn, p. 196;
  • Preparing for the operation of the new measure, p. 197;
  • The clauses of the Common Schools Act of 1871, p. 197;
  • The most revolutionary features of the Act, p. 198;
  • Problems which the Act either created or could not solve at once, p. 199;
CHAPTER 9
Common Schools and Sectarian Conflict
  • The Act of 1871 arouses local controversy and meets with opposition, p. 200;
  • It becomes a topic of discussion in the Canadian House of Commons, p. 201;
  • The Costigan resolutions of 1872, p. 203;
  • Parliamentary debate on these resolutions, p.203;
  • The outcome of the debate, p. 205;
  • The New Brunswick Government protests against the action of the Dominion House, p. 205;
  • Costigan's second attempt to secure federal intervention. p. 206;
  • The federal debate of
    1873, p. 206;
  • The House of Commons adopts Costigan's resolution and votes money for litigation, p. 207;
  • Correspondence between the Governor General and the British Secretary of State on the subject of the New Brunswick School Law, p. 207;
  • An attempt to arrive at a settlement in the City of Saint John, p. 208;
  • Negotiations between Bishop Sweeney and the Executive Council of New Brunswick, p. 208;
  • Wedderburn's resolution in the Legislature of 1874, p. 209;
  • Nowlan's counter-resolution, p. 210;
  • Blunt debate, featuring Premier George E. King, p. 210;
  • The outcome of the debate, p. 211;
  • Costigan's motion for an address to the Queen, p, 211;
  • The electors of New Brunswick uphold the School Act. p. 212;
  • The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council affirms the constitutionality of the Act, p. 212;
  • The riot at Caraquet, p. 212;
  • Various versions of the cause and course of the disturbance, p. 213;
  • The trial of the rioters, p. 215;
  • The case goes to the Supreme Court of New Brunswick, p. 215;
  • The accused are set free, p. 215;
  • The question of a lock-up at Caraquet, p. 216;
  • The Costigan resolutions of 1875, p. 216;
  • Long and heated debate on the question, p. 216;
  • Cross currents among the Roman Catholics, p. 219;
  • Settlement of the question in the Compromise of 1875, p. 220;
  • Separate license examinations for Sisters of Charity, p. 221;
  • Local opposition to the Act dies down, p. 221;
  • Religious feeling flares again in the 1890's, p. 222;
  • The circumstances surrounding the Bathurst Schools Case, p. 222;
  • The case referred to Judge J. J. Fraser of the Supreme Court, p. 223;
  • The whole province aroused, p. 223;
  • Judge Fraser's report, p. 224;
  • His findings sustained by Judge Barker, p. 225;
  • Pitts criticizes Judge Fraser's report, p. 226;
  • His pertinacity in the legislature on the subject, p. 226;
  • A clarification of certain regulations relating to religious instruction and the use of school buildings, p. 227;
  • The controversy directs attention to the school manuals and the regulations of the Board, p. 227;
  • The question of nationality becomes involved in the controversy, p. 227;
  • The dual nature of New Brunswick' population, p. 228;
  • The French begin to press for official recognition of their language, p. 228;
  • A degree of harmony in the Assembly, p. 228;
  • Acadian Schools previous to 1871, p. 229;
  • The B.N.A. Act and the status of the French language, p. 231;
  • The Act of 1871 and Acadian Schools, p. 231;
  • The authorization of French texts, p. 231;
  • The so-called French schools are bilingual, p. 232;
  • The training of French teachers, p. 232;
  • Conditions under which teachers trained in the French Department of the Normal School might be employed, p. 233;
  • The meagre attendance at this department, p. 234;
  • Educational backwardness in Acadian districts, p. 234;
  • The question of a bilingual inspector, p. 234;
  • The bilingual schools of Ontario p. 235;
  • Inspector Philip Cox points to the difficulties peculiar to the Acadian Schools, p. 235;
  • Unanswered questions of great significance, p. 236;
CHAPTER 10
Education in the Age of Science and Democracy
  • The Act of 1871 significant but not completely comprehensive, p. 237;
  • Obstacles in the way of further forward movements p. 237;
  • The province moves slowly in the field of teachers' pensions, p. 238;
  • And in the field of manual training, p. 238;
  • Correlation between educational developments and
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    the economic life of the province, p. 239;
  • A note of optimism during the Golden Age, p. 239;
  • At long last a new Normal School, p. 240;
  • The ranking system, p. 240;
  • Rand's Educational Circular, p. 241;
  • Rand calls for improvements in secondary education, p. 242;
  • Depression begins, p. 242;
  • The Educational Circular is discontinued, p. 243;
  • "Cheap" teachers are popular, p. 243;
  • The ranking system abolished, p. 243;
  • Pitiful irregularities reflecting the pinched times, p. 244;
  • Efforts to secure permanency in the teaching profession, p. 244;
  • The emphasis on economy in education, p. 244;
  • New Brunswick shares in the national prosperity of the declining century, p. 245;
  • The effect on education of the optimistic spirit of the times, p. 246;
  • The age of science, p. 246;
  • Loring Woart Bailey, a man of science, p. 246;
  • The Maritime Summer School of Science, p. 247;
  • Prominent teachers of the province recognize the claims of science, p. 248;
  • Science as taught in the schools of the province, p. 249;
  • Science by no means widely understood or applied, p. 249;
  • An age of political and social democracy, p. 250;
  • The tardy application of democracy in New Brunswick, p. 250;
  • Progress toward manhood suffrage, p. 250;
  • Interesting views on the question of votes for women, p. 251;
  • Democracy in the field of industrial relations, p. 253;
  • The meaning of democracy in education, p. 254;
  • The school system of New Brunswick not completely democratic, p. 254;
  • The need of a compulsory attendance law, p. 255;
  • The cramping influences of economic circumstances, p. 255;
  • The evils of the small school unit, p. 256;
  • The slow move toward consolidation, p. 256;
  • The secondary education of the province in need of a democratic extension, p. 256;
  • Various provincial views on secondary education, p. 257;
  • Some improvements in secondary education, p. 258;
  • The traditional studies are emphasized, p. 258;
  • Increased interest in public health, p. 259;
  • Health measures in the schools, p. 259;
  • The care of the insane, p. 259;
  • The reform school for boys, p. 260;
  • The education of the blind children and of deaf mutes, p. 260;
  • Few Kindergartens in New Brunswick, p. 260;
  • Professional knowledge, training, and contacts, p. 260;
  • Poor prospects for a two-year Normal course, p. 262;
  • An English educationist praises the New Brunswick school system, p. 262;
  • A tribute from the New England Journal of Education, p. 263;
  • New Brunswick educationists are invited to go to South Africa, p. 263;
  • Progress must be continuous, p. 263;
  • Present and future difficulties can scarcely be greater than those of the past, p. 263;